Midfielders and Backs: These students have continued their study of rational numbers to include their use in solving algebraic equations and inequalities. Most recently, we have been working with ratios and rates, understanding that we can solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed.

Our middle school students have spent a number of weeks working to master their knowledge of proportional relationships, using them as a means to solve real-world problems. These students have spent time computing unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units.

**Upper Elementary:**

Forwards: Our forwards have been expanding their knowledge of values of numbers and related fractional parts. Our goal is to keep a balance of skill based learning along with enhancing our student’s ability to problem solve and think conceptually. Students have been comparing fractions and decimals, converting between proper and improper fractions, and reviewing how factors and multiples can be utilized to find equivalent fractions. Additionally, we have spent time studying geometry concepts related to two dimensional figures. These concepts include reviewing the attributes of belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures, also belong to all subcategories of that category.

*For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are**rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.*Furthermore, we have reviewed the concepts of perimeter and area of rectangles and triangles in preparation of finding measures of these figures with fractional parts in the weeks to come.Midfielders and Backs: These students have continued their study of rational numbers to include their use in solving algebraic equations and inequalities. Most recently, we have been working with ratios and rates, understanding that we can solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed.

*For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then**at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what**rate were lawns being mowed?*Furthermore, we have been exploring a number of ways to display data: plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. Our data analysis practices included summarizing numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by reporting the number of observations and describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. Students demonstrated knowledge of using quantitative measures of center (median, mean, mode) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations (outliers) from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.**Middle School:**Our middle school students have spent a number of weeks working to master their knowledge of proportional relationships, using them as a means to solve real-world problems. These students have spent time computing unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units.

*For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute**the unit rate as the complex fraction (1/2)/(1/4) miles per hour, equivalently 2**miles per hour.*We have worked to recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities and decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. Students are able to identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships. Additionally, students are able to represent proportional relationships by equations.*For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn*. Lastly, our middle school students are using proportional relationships to solve multi-step ratio and percent problems.*Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns,**gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent**error.*